Binh Dinh is a coastal province in South Central Viet Nam. Its land area spreads 110 km long in the north-south direction, with 6,025 km2 natural land area and 36,000 km2 of sea waters territory. It borders Quang Ngai province on the north, with the top northern point of 14o42’10”N, 108o55’4E. It borders Phu Yen province on the south, with bottom southern point of 13o39’10 N, 108o54’00 E. It borders Gia Lai province on the west, with far western point of 14ờ’ N, 108o27’ E. The East Sea is on the east with a coastal line of 134 km long. The far eastern point is Nhon Chau commune (Cu Lao Xanh Island) of Quy Nhon City, with the coordinate of 13o36’33N, 109o21’E. Binh Dinh is evaluated as a very important strategic location for socio-economic development of the key economic regions of Central Viet Nam, and considered as a sea gate for provinces of the Highlands, Sothern Laos PDR and Northeast Cambodia.
Its topography is rather complex, sloping from west to east, with a high gradient difference of approximately 1,000 m. The common types of photography include mountainous and hilly areas comprising 70% of the province’s total area with an average altitude between 500 and 1,000 m high. The highest peak is 1,202 m high at An Toan commune, An Lao district. The mountain ranges run north-south with straight upright cliffs. In many areas, the mountains reach the sea forming rocky hills along the coast. Those hill cliffs are straight upright with narrow sand strips at the feet. This makes coastal areas of low hills mixed with sand dunes and lagoons. The midland area is between the western mountainous area and the eastern delta, with a total area of approximately 159,276 ha, an altitude below 100 m, and high gradient between 10o and 15o.The delta areas with an area of approximately 1,000 km2 formed by the topographical and climate factors is situated on the river basins or along the coast and are separated from the sea by the lagoons, sand dunes or mountain ranges. The coastal areas consist of sand hills and dunes forming narrow sand dunes running along the coast with changing shapes and scales in time. Binh Dinh has 33 big and small islands which are divided into 10 island groups or single islands. Nhon Chau Island, the largest one, is 24 km from Quy Nhon City with more than 2,000 people inhabiting on. Apart from the niche topography as described above, Binh Dinh has many rivers. The rivers are not big, short, high gradient, short, and low level of silt. The total water capacity is 5.2 billion cubic meters, with a hydropower potential of 182.4 million KW. There are 4 big rivers, including Lai Giang, Kon, La Tinh and Ha Thanh. Many man-made lakes have been constructed for the development of agriculture and aquaculture farming. Thi Nai, a large lagoon, is very good for the development of a national sea port and contributes to the development of Nho Hoi Economic Zone. It is also known as a historical and cultural sites and has the longest bridge across the sea in Viet Nam.
Binh Dinh is in the tropical region with high humidity and prevalent winds. The annual mean temperature varies between 20.1 and 26.1oC in the mountainous area; 27oC in the coastal area. The monthly mean absolute humidity in the year is between 22.5 to 27.9% in the mountainous area and the relative humidity is between 79 to 92%; in the coastal area the mean absolute humidity is 27.9% and the relative humidity is 79%. Total annual mean rainfall is 1,751 mm, with the highest rainfalls of 2,658 mm and the lowest of 1,131 mm. the rainy season is from September to December; and the dry season is from January to August. Although Binh Dinh, with this geological, topographical and climate structure, does not have large deltas it has fertile paddy fields, rich varieties of agricultural, forestry and fishery products, rich mineral resources and good capacity for hydropower.
Binh Dinh has a provincial class-one city (Quy Nhon City), a borough (An Nhon), 3 mountainous districts (An Lao, Van Canh & Vinh Thanh), 2 midland districts (Hoai An & Tay Son), 4 delta districts (Hoai Nhon, Phu Cat, Phu My & Tuy Phuoc). There are 159 communes/wards and townships in the province. The province’s administrative center is Quy Nhon City.
The province’s population is curving toward mechanical decrease. The official survey of April 1st, 2009 shows that Binh Dinh has a population of 1,485,943 people, with 25% in urban areas and 75% in rural areas. The population density is 247 people per square kilometer. In addition to the Kinh, there are nearly 40 other ethnic groups inhabiting in the province. There are three main minority ethnic groups of Cham, Ba Na and Hre inhabiting in the mountainous and midland districts.